PLCs ( Programmable Logic Controller )

Introduction

PLC  solid state devices ki madad se banaya gaya ek tarah ka  specialize computer hota hai jo ki design kiya jata hai machine ki processes ko control karne ke liye, PLCs ka istemal sequential relay ki jagah par kiya hai. Industrial process me products ke production ke liye kuch sequential automatic operation ki zaroorat hoti hai jinme ek definite time interval ke baad isi ka repetition hota hai jinme PLCs ke is istemal se bahut profit hota hai.PLC instruction ko store ya record karne ke liye ek programmable memory ka istemal karta hai. Ye on/off control, timing, counting, sequencing, arithmetic aur data handling jaise instructions ko store ya kisi specific function ko record  karne ke liye is programmable ko istemal karta hai.

Advantages of PLC

1.    Flexible:- PLCs ko asaani se programme kiya ja sakta hai aur kisi bhi industrial process me easily use kiya ja sakta hai.

2.    Easy Maintenance:- PLC ka maintenance aur installation  bahut easily kiya ja sakta hai.

3.    PLCs ka response time bahut fast hota hai jisse ye process ko asani se kisi bhi process ko manage kar sakte hain.

4.    PLCs ka ek bada benefit ye bhi hai ki inme wiring kam to hoti hi hai  sath me inki wiring simple bhi hoti hai.

5.    Jaisa ki upar hamne padha ki ye ek solid state device hai that means ki isme koi moving part ni hota hai isi wajah se inka lifetime bhi zyada rehta hai.

6.    PLCs se ek ye bi benefit hota hai ki ye complicated system ko bhi easily handle kar sakte hain.

7.    Inko is tarah design kiya jata hai ki ye asaani se repair kiye ja sake aur easily ek jagah se doosri jagah par transfer kiye ja sake.

 

8.    PLC generally less expensive ( saste) hote hain.

Disadvantages of PLC

1.    PLC keval close loop architecture me banaye jate hain.

2.    PLCs ke wires ko connect karne ke liye bahut zyada work karna padta hai.

3.    PLCs me errors ko find karna bahut mushkil hota hai.

Architecture of PLC

PLC binary input aur binary output ke principle par work karta hai that means ki ye inputs binary me hi lete hain aur output bhi binary me hi dete hain. PLCs ka istemal mostly un industries me kiya jata hai Jahan har unit ko ek series me joda jata hai aur har unit ke production ko automatic processes ki madad se poora kiya jata hai aur in process ko PLC ki madad se control kiya jata hai. PLC me store kiye programmes ke according ye instructions ko follow karte hain. Isme istemal hone wali Central Processing Unit (CPU)  manufacturing ke starting me sirf logic response ko hi complete krti hain jiski wajah se ise Programmable Logic Controller kaha jata hai. Ye CPU arithmetic operations ke sath sath timer aur counter ki processes ko bhi complete krti hai aur inhi responce ya process ke base par hi PLC ki value aur size par determine ki jati hai.

Input System:-  PLCs ko input dene ke liye different types ki input devices ka istemal kiya jata hai jaise Sensor, Push Bottons, Toggle Switch.

Sensor ka kaam ye hota hai ki kisi object ki presence ko sence karna.

Push Bottons ka istemal kisi bhi process ko start ya stop karne ke liye kiya jata hai.

 

Toggle Switch ka istemal PLC me input aur high ya low output provide karne  ke liye kiya jata hai. Generally toggle switch sirf on ya off signal ke liye kiya jata hai.

Output Systems:- Different devices ki madad se PLC output provide karti hain jaise indicating lamp, motor starter, valves, hooter.

Indicating lamp ye kisi bhi start ya stop hone ka indication ko show karta hai.

Motor Starter jaisa ki iske naam se hi clear hai ki ye motor ki state ko off se on me convert karte hain.

 

Valves ki state ko on se off ya off se on karne ka kaam karta hai.

Function of PLC

Arithmetic control function :- jaisa ki iske name se hi clear hota hai ki ye arithmetic operations ko karta hai jaise addition, multiplication, subtraction, divide etc. PLC normal calculations ke sath sath complex calculation bhi kar sakta  hai.

Analog Control Function :- PLC ko control function jaise  Proportional, Integral aur Derivative function etc  ko perform kar sakte hain.

Counting Functions:- Counting function  ki madad se PLC count karta hai memory me store input ya outputs ko.

Logic Control Action:- Logic Control Action ki madad se PLC output signals ko generate karta hai jo ki based hote hain uski memory me store logic par.

 

Matrix Functions:- Is function ka main work error ka pata lagana hota hai, jisme ye compare karta hai output value aur memory me store value ko aur iske difference ko ye error me show karta hai.

Input/Output Interface

Ye module ek tarah ke input/output system ke hardware component hote hain jo ki PLC me different different devices ko connect karti hain, is interface me koi modules jo sakte hain. Inke har module me ek encased circuit board hota hai jinke input aur output rack me plug hota hai aur aise design kiya jata hai ki ye special type ke devices jaise discrete analog system se interface kar sakte hain. Generally interface do types ke hote hain:-

  Input Module:- Input Modules field se gain kiye gaye different different outputs ko controller ko bhejta hai .In modules ko is tarah adjust kiya jata hai ki ye push button aur selector switch ki madad se diye gaye digital se ko bhi unse kar sake aur pressure aur transducer ki madad se generate analog signals ko bhi measure kar sake. Input Module field se ane wale signals ko us form me convert kar deta hai jise PLC ki processor easily read kar sake. Ye system PLC aur field voltage ke beech isolation produve karta hai.

Output Module:- Output Moduler, controller se ane wale output ko field devices tak pahuchane ke liye istemal kiya jata hai. In Modules ko is tarah se design kiya jata hai ki ye switch devices jaise motor starter se diye gaye digital signal ke on/off status ko processor ki madad se control kiya ja sake. Jab ye processor se signal gain kar leta hai tab field devices ke controlling ke liye ye in signals ko compatible signal form me convert kar deta hai aur ye module PLC aur field voltage ke beech isolation produce karta hai.

90 thoughts on “PLCs ( Programmable Logic Controller )

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