Transformers and Its Parts

Transformer ek electric magnetic device hai, jiski madad se electric power ko same frequency me rakhte hue ek circuit se doosre circuit me transfer kiya jata hai. 

Transformer ek static device hai jo ki Mutual Induction ke principle pr work karti hai. Ye high voltage ko low aur low voltage ko high voltage me convert karne ki taqat rakhta hai.

Transformers me do ya do se zyada windings hoti hain. Jisme supply di jati hai use Primary Winding aur jisse supply li jati hai use Secondary Winding kehte hain. 


Step-Up Transformer:- Step Up Transformer  wo transformer hote hain jo low Input voltage ko High Input voltage me convert kar de. Ye mostly three phase aur delta-delta type ke hote hain.


Step Up Transformer ki Primary winding ke coils me number of turns (N1)  kam hote hain aur Secondary Winding me number of turns (N2) zyada hote hain.

Step-Down Transformer:Step Down Transformer, step down down transformer ke thik ulta kaam karte hain.



Step Down Transformer High input voltage ko low input voltage me convert kar deta hai. Ye mostly three phase aur delta-star type ke hote hain.

 Step down transformer ke primary winding  me coils ke zyada number of turns (N1), jabki secondary winding me coils ke turns (N2) kam hote hain.


Core’s Construction Criteria

Shell Type Transformer:–  Shell type me core’s ki banawat(construction) ‘E’ aur ‘I’ shape ki hoti hai, high reluctance ko reduce (kam) karne ke lie.

Isme teen legs hote hain Middle leg winding kar di jati hai. Shell type me primary aur secondary coils middle me hi rakhi jati hain aur yahi leg sara flux carry karta hai to iski width (chaudai) baki dono legs se zyada hoti hai. Shell type transformer high output paane ke lie istemal kie jate hain.

Core Type Transformer:Jaisa ke ye core base transformer to inke core’s ke kai shapes ho sakte hain jaise circuler, oval aur rectangular. 

Genrally, ek rectangular core istemal ki jati hai cylindrical windings ke sath ye circular ya rectangular bhi ho sakti hai. Circular type ki core  other cores se bhut achi hoti hai.

Berry Type Transformer:Berry type transformer me ek special type ki core istemal ki jati hai jo BERRY SHAPE ki hoti hai.Isme kai tarah ke rectangular frame aise lage hote hain ki unka ek part main core ke middle part se nikle.  

Inme main core par primary winding aur uske upar secondary winding ki jati hai aur ye dono winding kisi insulator ke zarie ek doosre se alag ki jati hain. Is tarah ke transformer high power wale hote hain to inhe special  type ke work ke istemal kiya jata hai.

Phase Criteria

Single Phase Transformer:Single Phase Transformers, Alternating Currernt (A.C.) ki single phase supply par work karte hai jisme primary winding me input de ker secondary winding se step up ya step down karke output le liya jata hai.

Three Phase Transformer:–  Aaj kal Three phase transformer ka istemal zyada hota hai. Three phase transformer  me teen primary aur teen secondary winding hoti hain. 

Inka istemal mostly electricity producing plant me kiya jata hai. Three Phase Transformer zyadatar shell ya core type ke banae jate hain.

Cooling System Criteria

Natural  Cooled Transformer: Natural cooling system bade transformers ke lie bhut acha nahi mana jata lekin ye chhote transformers me zyada istemal kiya jata hai.


Chhote Transformers ko thanda karne ke lie core ka area zyada rakha jata hai jisse wo transformer se nikale wali heat ko absorb (sok) kr le. Aur transformer ke bahari side me duct bni hoti hai jisse natural air bahar nikalti rehti hai.

Oil Cooled Transformer:-In transformers  me heat ko reduce karne ke lie Oil ka istemal kiya jata hai. Jo ki ek tank me bhara hua hota hai. Winding ke heat hone par oil bi heat ho jata hai aur tank ke upar aa jata hai aur thanda oil neeche chala jata hai jo winding ko thanda kar deta hai.

 Garm oil ek cooling pipe se guzarta hai jahan ye.garm oil kuch waqt me thanda ho jata hai. Yahi process repeat hoti rehti hai is type ke transformers me.

Water Cooled Transformer:- Is tarah ke transformers me oil ko thanda rakhne ke lie cold water ka istemal kiya jata hai. Winding ke charo taraf paani ke pipes ko lapet dia jata hai aur neeche tank me pani bhara rehta hai. 

Winding ke garm  hone se jab oil  bhi garm ho jata hai to pani ke tank se pani chhod diya jata hai aur is tarah pani ki thandak se oil bhi thanda ho jata hai.

Air Cooled


Is type ke transformers ko air ke zarie thanda kiya jata hai. Inki windings ke pass ek pankha laga hua hota hai aur in transformers me hawa guzarne ke lie ducts bane hote jinke zarie hawa poore transformer me achi tarah se ghum sake.

Turns Ratio


Kisi bhi Transformer me primary winding aur secondary winding ke ratio ko Turns ratio kehte hain.



Auto Transformer



Auto transformer ek akela aisa  transformer jisme kewal ek hi winding hi jisse ek common terminal nikla hua hota hai. Isme primary aur secondary winding common hota hai. Ye transformer wha istemal kie jate hain jahan par hame voltage ki variety chahie jaise 220,230 or 240.

Instrument Transformer


Instrument transformer high current aur voltage ke measurement ke lie kiya jata hai. Ye do type ke hote hain.


i)                            Current transformer


ii)                        Potential transformer 

Current Transformer

 Current Transformers me mostly  secondary winding me  coils zyada ho jati hain. Isme secondary coil proportional hoti hai primary coil ke. 

Secondary coil me turns zyada hone ki wajah se secondary coil me voltage value to zyada hoti h lekin current value kam ho jati hai jise ham ampere meter se measure  kar lete jaisa ki aap diagram me dekh sakte hain.

Potential Transformer


Potential transformer wo transformers hote hain jinka istemal power system me voltage ko low karke safe level par laane ke lie kiya jata hai. 

Ye transformer step down type ke hote hain inko kam output ka banaya jata hai. Potential transformers ka secondary voltage 150 volt hota hai.

About Mohd Mustaqeem Siddiqui

You can contact me for any ITI related information and for any query on ITI Electronic or Instrument Mechanic.

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